Wind farms often tend to be located at the extremes of the system where the existing overhead line circuits have insufficient load-transfer capacity to carry the full output of the wind farm. Originally designed to supply relatively small loads, the connection of wind generation may result in a large reverse power flow in excess of the summer and winter static ratings of the existing circuit.
Faced with the connection of existing and proposed wind generation comprising 180 MW offshore and 50 MW to 90 MW onshore, the existing 132-kV, 40-km (24.9-mile) double-circuit overhead transmission line between Skegness and Boston in northeastern England required a load management and protection system to enable the acceptance of this large penetration of wind generation.
Transmission & Distribution World's July issue describes how Central Networks, the UK energy company involved, uses wind velocity and direction to determine dynamic line ratings. The article looks at transmission line monitoring, selection of dynamic line protection, design features, and commissioning and data analysis....